Jeremy Kuzmarov has written a seminal ebook, Obama’s Endless Wars: Fronting the Overseas Coverage of the Permanent Warfare State (Clarity Press, August 2019), on the US Army Empire led for eight years by a black-faced president residing within the African slave-constructed White House.
The writer peals the imperial white mask off the black skin in an analogy to Frantz Fanon’s basic work. Racism, colonization and modern neo-colonialization have distorted the psyches of many individuals of all colours. Barak Obama’s black Kenyan roots allowed him to do the white man’s bidding throughout Africa, and lots of different nations. Whereas George Bush based the US African Command (AFRICOM), in 2007, it was Obama, who set about implementing army (and financial) domination over African governments and lands.
Kuzmarov’s impeccable and in depth analysis reveals the truth of Obama’s eight presidential years favoring the wealthy class’ economic and military-warring interests. Like a couple of different seminal books concerning the US Army Empire—Oliver Stone/Peter Kuznick The Untold History of the USA and Douglas Valentine The CIA & Organized Crime—this historian has learn, skimmed by means of and compiled hundreds of books and pertinent articles about his topic. One may dispute the writer’s evaluation or conclusions however an trustworthy reader can’t dispute the details with which he exhibits how jingoist, brutal and unjust US overseas coverage is.
Obama, the drone president, stood for seven aggressive wars directly, more than some other US president. For my part, he was the worst president in US history, because he hypocritically provided hope to the downtrodden, the discriminated towards and the overall working inhabitants, all the whereas doing the rich white man’s soiled deeds. He beguiled these people, and he might get away with it, specifically, because he had black skin and a Harvard voice, which he used to cheat individuals of all colors and nations.
Chatting with white and black readers sans condescension, Kuzmarov exhibits what number of white progressives, who, of their nervousness to reject any racist appearance, embraced this warmongering president. Obama additionally convinced most African-People to offer him leeway to do them justice, which he never did. Deluded African-American men joined the army in larger numbers than at some other time in history, and so they too struggle for the weapons business’s wars for income.
Obama followed a standard American Exceptionalism war-making strategy with Woodrow Wilson as his principle idol. Wilson despatched 13,000 US troops to invade Russia as the young revolution started, and set the tone for permanent bellicosity towards this nation. Obama appreciated to be compared with him as he did with John F. Kennedy, who oversaw the Bay of Pigs invasion towards Cuba, in 1961, who introduced the world near a world conflict nuclear disaster the subsequent yr, and who backed multiple coups and right-wing regimes beneath the benign sounding Alliance for Progress.
Like Kennedy, Obama offered a liberal front for insurance policies that exacerbated inner inequalities and setback actions for progressive change, holding us locked within the Cold Struggle, and setting the idea for a new Chilly Struggle. Kuzmarov points out that the ramping up of police training and different alleged safety measures had a “disturbingly unfavourable impression on public security, human rights, violence towards ladies and democratic establishments,” quoting from an NGO research.
Obama was also a horrible manager of tax monies. Kuzmarov wrote:
The Obama administration is estimated to have added as a lot as $10 trillion to the U.S. nationwide debt, the most important complete of any president in historical past, and oversaw a rise in the debt to GDP ratio from 64.eight% to 104.7% and a stability of payments deficit of $463 billion in 2015. China’s possession of over one trillion of the U.S. debt helped to shift the economic stability in its favor because the U.S. dollar began dropping its attraction as a worldwide foreign money trade, additional undercutting the claim that Obama was a deft supervisor of empire. His administration wasted taxpayer money on billion dollar boondoggles like Lockheed Martin’s F-35 fighter jet, which army analyst Pierre Sprey referred to as ‘an inherently terrible airplane,’ whereas adversaries like Russia started to develop larger digital and cyberwarfare capabilities and long-range missiles able to threatening U.S. army bases.
In chapter two, utilizing lies to market Obama, Kuzmarov wrote:
Strategically casting himself in Goals from My Father as an heir to the early 1960s organizing custom, Obama underplays the importance of his employment for a Manhattan-based consulting home to multi-national firms, Enterprise Worldwide Company (BIC)… Headed by an in depth pal of former vice chairman Hubert Humphrey, BIC had functioned as a CIA entrance with a subspecialty in recruiting left-wing organizers to use as belongings, and in infiltrating overseas labor unions with the objective of selling disruptions in targeted economies.
As an alternative of actual group organizing, he labored for the Gamaliel Basis, a satellite tv for pc of the Ford Basis. Once Obama turned president, he closed down the one baby welfare workplace in Chicago’s south aspect ghetto, and reduce funds to black schools. He made political friendships with different main capitalists corresponding to Henry Crown and his son Lester, billionaires who merged their Material Service Company with the world’s sixth largest weapons company, Common Dynamics. The Crowns personal one-fifth of GD. All through his presidency, Common Dynamics all the time benefited from the wars Obama oversaw.
In “Black Skin, White Masks” chapter, we read Frantz Fanon’s warning that the deep psychological effects of colonialism,
would yield a breed of post-independence leaders in Africa, who have been submissive to white Western pursuits, and prepared to keep their own individuals subordinate not just because they have been cynically out for themselves however, because they believed in their very own inferiority.[Obama] status as a civil rights icon was undercut by lots of his insurance policies and aloofness from the plight of the black underclass. Obama’s craving for peace was also a mirage and solely obvious when he thought it’d profit him politically.”
He satisfied 53 of 54 African nations to simply accept this militarization for neo-colonial profiteering. Obama’s agricultural coverage promoted genetic engineering and chemical intensive agriculture at the urging of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, DuPont and Monsanto, whose former executives served in his administration.
Obama’s “Energy Africa initiative” relied closely on US-Europe-African personal sector funding. Obama additionally aided oil and mineral firms in taking pure assets via large bloodshed in many nations. The U.S. had amassed over 60 army outposts and was operating one and a half army missions per day. Obama “intervened” in Yemen, Somalia, Uganda, Niger, Rwanda & Congo, Sudan & South Sudan inner conflicts on the aspect of right-wing factions and governments. He despatched them army gear, bombs and specially educated killer Special Forces.
“The Libyan intervention particularly exhibits Obama to be the type of leader Frantz Fanon warned about: a black who served the interests of the white masters and helped legitimize their exploitative practices. Muammar Gaddafi was a long-time foil of the American Empire,” Kuzmarov wrote.
Gaddafi led a cold revolution, in 1969, towards the Sanussi King Idris, a corrupt U.S. and British ally who gave concessions to Western oil corporations in return for army and technical assist. Beneath Gaddafi, no Libyan went to bed hungry. Every newly-weds acquired $50,000 to start out a household. Full schooling and well being care have been paid for out of the nationwide oil revenue and taxes.
A Pan-Arab and African supportive of the Palestinian cause, Gaddafi kicked out the U.S. army when he got here to energy in 1969 and positioned Libya’s top quality, mild sweet crude oil beneath national management, reinvesting income in well being and schooling. Life expectancy increased from fifty-four to seventy-one years underneath his rule, the literacy fee went from six to 88 %, and homelessness was eradicated. By way of its state-owned bank which didn’t charge interest, Libya also financed an African satellite that slashed communications prices and have become a world chief in hydrological engineering as a consequence of improvement of a man-made river that gained a serious UNESCO award for ‘exceptional scientific research work on water utilization in arid areas.’
Obama and NATO invaded Libya in 2011 to protect “innocent civilians”.
“The Obama administration spent about $1 billion on Libya’s ‘revolution,’ and helped NATO with all the things from munitions to surveillance plane, finishing up roughly 20 % of the over 26,000 bombing sorties within the seven-month NATO mission that included dropping cluster munitions, phosphorus and Gasoline Air Explosives which are outlawed beneath worldwide regulation.”
“Hillary Clinton jubilantly informed a reporter. ‘We came, we saw, he died,’”. “CIA director John Brennan advised speechwriter Ben Rhodes that Qaddafi’s demise ‘marked a fitting end for one of many largest rats of the 20th century.’” Brennan later turned the architect for pretend news “russiagate.”
The large progress for the whole population that the Qaddafi authorities had completed was destroyed by numerous terrorist factions backed by US/NATO. Since their “human rights victory”, estimates run at 600,000 killed and more displaced. Immediately, Libya is a haven for Al Qaeda and Islam State torturous warriors (numbering upwards to 10,000). They visitors in arms and worldwide terrorism, make slaves of staff, intercourse slaves of girls, and pressure African refugees to flee to Europe on boats that sink, causing the deaths of many hundreds of people.
Re-colonializing Africa entailed Obama’s personal delivery of drones to homicide Africans, additionally individuals in the Middle Japanese, whom he and his buddy, CIA chief John Brennan, thought-about enemies. The pair poured over “mug photographs and biographies of presumed terrorists that appeared like they got here from a ‘highschool yearbook’… One official termed them the ‘macabre baseball playing cards of unconventional conflict.’”
Sensitive to macho critiques that he wasn’t robust enough to be a Real American President, Obama sent out a press release, Might 29, 2012, to the impact that he was one of the best drone president killer. Eighty-three of American Exceptionalists polled liked him for it.
Behind the scenes, considered one of 17 US intelligence providers, the Protection Intelligence Agency, warned that this droning of weddings and other public occasions would backfire, and would create more terrorists than it kills.
Throughout his eight years on the helm, Obama ordered 563 drone strikes towards Middle Japanese and African peoples plus more than 1000 in Afghanistan. Inner communications leaked by Wikileaks exhibits that at the very least 1100 civilians have been killed, plus some US soldiers, and that 90% hit were not the meant goal. Obama’s favorite capitalist, Lester Crown, owns giant shares in drone know-how, and Obama’s second Secretary of State John Kerry owns such stocks as properly.
Obama increased the struggle in Afghanistan, so as, he claimed, to decrease the conflict. In two separate waves, he sent in 51,000 further troops (plus 117,000 civilian mercenaries). Just as his predecessors’ wars towards the Indo-Chinese language individuals, this warmonger knew this conflict can’t be gained. Yet there’s the benefit of opium. When in power, Taliban worn out a lot of the opium. Because the US took over, 90% of the world’s opium comes from there, and the CIA has control over a lot of it. Thus hundreds of thousands of its enemies who border Afghanistan—Iran, China, Russia—are introduced to opium-heroin and turn out to be addicted.
Eighteen years into this struggle, Obama’s weapons business donor pals even have the advantage of getting many new weapons examined for future use.
The alleged homicide of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, on Mayday 2011, by two dozen Navy Seal Workforce 6 raiders beneath the direct command of the CIA in all probability did not happen, Kuzmarov wrote.
US American and Pakistan officers, and US sailors, differ about what befell.
No pictures of the body, and others allegedly killed in the house that day, have been made public nor have been DNA checks allegedly carried out by CIA/DOD and Homeland Safety. No unbiased sources have been allowed to see check outcomes, which the federal government stated proved bin Laden was killed that day. Additionally they stated they buried him within hours, in accordance with Muslim custom. His body was supposedly thrown from the US warship service Carl Vinson. Sailors spoken with stated they saw nothing.
Kuzmarov cites skilled sources that consider bin Laden had long been lifeless from an incurable renal failure requiring constant dialyses. Furthermore, how might it’s that 30 of these particular killer Navy Seal Workforce 6 have been killed three months later when Taliban forces shot down a transport helicopter by which they have been touring? Obama spokespersons stated that they had not been at bin Laden’s dying, but relations asserted the US authorities turned this elite pressure into a target by revealing their position within the bin Laden raid. They could have talked?
I skip over the warfare towards Iraq (area limits), which Obama continued from George Bush period, to return to the “Pivot to Asia”.
“The Asia Pivot was symbolically introduced by Hillary Clinton on a U.S. naval destroyer in Manila Bay, the situation for America’s unique pivot in the 1898 Spanish-American Philippines Conflict. The rigorously choreographed occasion implied a proud continuity from an era most historians contemplate to be shameful since U.S. soldiers dedicated heinous atrocities, and a minimum of 200,000 Filipinos have been killed,” Kuzmarov wrote.
Resistance towards continued US interference in both domestic and overseas insurance policies has elevated in lots of Asian nations because the Asian Pivot began. Islanders on Guam and lots of different islands dominated by US army are weary of its conflict games and pollution and need the Yankees to Go Residence. This is the case as nicely for a lot of South Koreans and Japanese.
China is not any army menace but the US has 200 army bases and lots of different army amenities within the Asian area. China has one outdoors its own territory (in Djibouti Africa). Yet China, just as Russia, should now spend funds and time constructing more weapons of defense because the US encroaches closer and closer.
Obama’s pivot did not get his Trans-Pacific Partnership passed. China’s constructive improvement tasks, such because the “Great Wall of Sand” in the South China Seas, its “one belt, one street initiative,” an enormous infrastructural improvement venture aiming to connect the Pacific and Baltic Seas, helps convey it supporters and prestige while the US loses its.
As the USA and Western Europe have been mired in rising debt, corruption, and economic and ethical decline, China was steadily forging an effective counter-pole to Washington’s New World (dis-)order together with Putin’s Russia. In April 2015, China took a serious step in their campaign to supplant the greenback as the world’s dominant reserve foreign money when European members of the IMF embraced China’s demand to include the yuan as a unit of IMF foreign money.
Again, US overseas policy is all about oil/cash/dominance. It is estimated that the South China Sea, which the US needs to regulate, accommodates 213 billion barrels of oil and 190 trillion cubicle ft of natural fuel.
Chapters eight and nine—too many lies, the new cold conflict with Russia, and Obama’s betrayal of his Cairo vision—are probably the most detailed-researched of the ten chapters. They cowl the conflict in Syria, the US-neo-fascist coup in Ukraine, the referendum of the Crimean individuals to hitch with Russia, Saudi Arabia/Yemen, Zionist Israel and Palestinians.
Obama sent his emissaries to Ukraine to back the right-wing factions towards the duly democratically elected President Viktor Yanukovych, who sought to commerce and companion with each side: Russia and US/EU. He would not be a part of EU or NATO, so neo-fascists brought concerning the violent Maidan disaster in February 2014.
Three Georgian mercenaries informed Italian TV journalist Glan Micalessin they have been the snipers at Maidan on February 20, 2014 when 80-90 individuals have been killed. They have been ordered by Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili and paid $1000 every by his army advisor Mamuka Mamulashvilli. Former US 101 Airborn Iraqi warfare paratrooper Brian Christopher Boyenger accompanied them over a number of days of the Maidan violence main as much as the coup.
The three Georgians are: Koba Nergadze, Kvarateskelia Zalogi and Alexcander Revazishvilli.
Obama’s special envoy to Ukraine Victoria Nuland advised the US ambassador Geoffrey Pyatt who would lead the coup government, and that is what occurred. The professional-fascist Svobada social gathering’s hero, Stepan Bandera, turned the brand new government national hero. He supported the Nazis and helped homicide 900,000 of Ukraine’s 1.5 million Jews. Svobada acquired a number of seats within the coup authorities.
The US government, and considered one of its main capitalist partners, George Soros, spent several billion dollars to spice up the coup, and even proudly announced this as evidence that “America’s taxes go to humanitarian causes”. The fact that a whole lot of staff and demonstrators have been killed by pro-fascist groupings was not value contemplating.
Forcing a right-wing coup induced the March referendum in the Crimea, during which 96% of the 83% voting forged their ballot to hitch with Russia. One yr later, the very capitalist Forbes journal, wrote: “The US and European Union might need to save Crimeans from themselves, however the Crimeans are glad right the place they’re…principally all [are] in agreement: life with Russia is best than life with Ukraine.” 93% stated the referendum was respectable, solely 2% stated it was not.
Obama despatched cash and arms for coup authorities and neo-fascist mercenary assaults on Japanese Ukraine. Russia provided some help to Donetsk insurgents, but would not convey them into the Russian Federation, which was their want.
Vice-president Joe Biden, and his son, made massive cash from the coup government, and its rich associates. This reality is sort of related right now. As I write this evaluate, the House of Representatives has simply began an impeachment process towards President Donald Trump for, specifically, suggesting that Biden and son cheated.
The Biden household was one of the major beneficiaries of America’s interference in Ukraine. While the Vice-President was overseeing U.S. policy towards Ukraine, his son, Hunter joined the board of certainly one of Ukraine’s most profitable and corrupt power corporations, Burisma, which gave the potential to the Bidens of turning into billionaires. Journalist Peter Schweizer points out that Biden often consulted with [President Petro] Poroshenko by telephone and made 5 journeys to the Ukraine between 2014 and 2017 while his son’s business partners prepared to strike a profitable cope with controversial and reportedly violent oligarchs Kolomoisky and Zlochevsky, who would profit from his actions. Schweizer’s investigation additional pointed to the disappearance of $1.8 billion in U.S. taxpayer assured money to Ukraine. The IMF loans disappeared after going via Kolomoisky’s personal bank.
Kuzmarov’s chapter nine deals primarily with the nations where the US backed Arab Spring protestors in those nations where the US sought regime change. These protestors rapidly turned violent and acquired US armed help. The place the US backed the governments, protestors were not aided: Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt, Tunisia.
The Arab Spring shortly became an extended and darkish winter, first in Libya, then in Bahrain, Yemen and Syria the place America, selling regime change, allied with jihadists who corrupted any hope of constructive democratic transformation. Little progress was made in the Israeli-Palestine battle as Obama increased arms shipments whilst Israel pulverized Gaza in a murderous 51-day struggle. The double requirements of U.S. overseas coverage have been vividly apparent in Obama’s copious arms sales to Saudi Arabia because it assaulted Yemen, and Obama’s help for different state sponsors of terrorism like Pakistan and Turkey underneath strongman Recep Tayyip Erdogan, which not required a State Division license to import American weapons.
Supporting Zionism and apartheid towards Palestinians in Israel and surrounding areas additionally led Obama to be tight with the six Sunni Muslim Gulf States.
Over eight years, he sanctioned a document $115 billion in arms sales to the Saudis in 42 separate deals and protected the kingdom by refusing to declassify 28 pages from the 9/11 report on Saudi Arabia, which might probably element their position in the terrorist assaults. Obama additionally vetoed laws allowing 9/11 victims’ families to sue the Saudi authorities.
“The Obama administration further offered over $20 billion in new weapons transfers to Saudi Arabia after the Yemen struggle broke out and forty million pounds value of jet gasoline. Weapons included Apache and Black Hawk helicopters, F-15 jet fighters, cruise missiles, ‘sensible bombs,’ white phosphorus, an incendiary that burns via the skin to the bone, and a $1.5 billion shipment of 152 Abrams battle tanks made by Basic Dynamics, twenty of which have been destined to replenish automobiles from Yemen. Beforehand, the Obama administration bought cluster bombs to Saudi Arabia made by the Rhode Island Company, Textron, whose shell-casings have been recovered on the website in Western Yemen.
Since Iran additionally calls for to right to its sovereignty and is principally Shia, Zionist Israel and Sunni Gulf States assault it, the Shias in Yemen, and the multi-religious Baath government of Assad in Syria. Terrorist opponents to the Assad authorities assault Christians, while Assad’s authorities shield them. It’s also a reality that the majority of Syrians dwelling in Syria back the Assad government and think about IS as backed by the US and its allies.
US/NATO/Israel allowed terrorists IS and al Nursa to homicide and broaden its base till September 2014 when some effort to battle them started.
To quote one reality concerning such help, Kuzmarov wrote: “One group instantly armed by the CIA, Nourredine al Zinki, shaped a coalition with an outfit referred to as ‘the bin Laden entrance.’ It was singled out by Amnesty Worldwide for finishing up ugly atrocities in rebel-held Japanese Aleppo.”
That is why Russia had to come to Syria’s defense, to effectively crush these terrorists since enemy states of Syria wouldn’t. It was additionally Putin who convinced Assad to turn over no matter chemical weapons he had and did so to the world’s biggest producer and consumer of such horror weapons.
It was President Putin, again, who prevented a conflict towards Iran by serving to its government make a cope with the West to not develop atomic weapons, a lot to Obama’s surprise and maybe chagrin.
“A key function of the new Chilly Struggle has been the incessant demonization of Russian President Vladimir Putin and depiction of Russia as a neo-Soviet autocracy. Obama stated that the primary objective of U.S. coverage was ‘to place him in a box to stop making mischief’. Such comments have been a part of Obama’s efforts to forged the new Chilly Warfare as an ethical crusade towards an evil dictator,” Kuzmarov wrote.
Obama began economic sanctions towards the Russian government, in 2012, and expanded it many occasions—as has Donald Trump—to hurt all the financial system and inhabitants, all because President Vladimir Putin insists that Russia is sovereign and will not be dictated to. American Exceptionalism ideology won’t accpt such rogue brashness.
I skip over the pathetic attempts to vilify Putin and Russia as chargeable for the election of Donald Trump, russiagate, as there’s so much info and evidence that it’s a complete lie. Kuzarmov covers it properly using sources that know what they are talking about, together with previous high-level NSA technicians and intelligence men who turned whistleblowers, William Binney and Edward Snowden.
The last chapter summarizes the various nations in Latin America that Obama “meddled” towards, backing the far right and trying to topple the progressive and pro-socialist oriented new governments, particularly these within the ALBA (Bolivarian Alliance for the Individuals of Our America) economic-political coalition.
This coalition began in 2004 on the initiative of Venezuela President Hugo Chavez and Cuba President Fidel Castro. The conservative Honduran President Jose Manuel Zelaya noticed advantages for the individuals in becoming a member of it, and because of that, right-wing generals, backed by Obama and his Secretary of State Hilliary Clinton, overthrew Zelaya in a coup, June 28, 2009. Obama-Clinton instantly recognized the coup government while the rest of the Americas did not.
Just half a yr later, I accompanied Bolivian President Evo Morales to the COP15 local weather summit held in Copenhagen as one in every of two PR staff. I helped him, and typically President Chavez, meet the media. These two giants for Latin American sovereignty didn’t maintain their tongues in regards to the American Exceptionalist President Par Excellence. Kuzmarov opens thusly:
In December 2009, Venezuela’s leftist President Hugo Chavez gave a speech at the Copenhagen climate summit mocking President Obama, whom he referred to as having gained ‘the Nobel Prize of Warfare.’ Chavez thought-about Obama a phony who had gained the peace prize ‘virtually the same time as he despatched 30,000 troopers off to kill innocent individuals in Afghanistan.’ Referencing his famous 2006 speech on the UN when he had held up Noam Chomsky’s guide Hegemony or Survival and referred to George W. Bush because the ‘devil,’ Chavez stated he ‘still smelled sulfur’ coming from Obama as he was perpetuating most of the similar inhuman insurance policies.
Evo Morales, the first indigenous leader in Bolivia’s history, followed Chavez by excoriating Obama for being the one chief to go away the summit’s stage from a hid door. If Obama genuinely needed to advertise constructive social change, Morales stated that he should ‘use the money you’re spending for wars towards the peoples of Afghanistan and Iraq, for militarizing Colombia with seven army bases to save lots of lives, to save lots of the planet, our Mother Earth.’
It was exhilarating to see and listen to these two real leaders tell it like it is!
Obama’s policies in Latin American have been worse than Bush II, who targeting the Middle East. When Ecuador’s leftist president Rafael Correa closed U.S. army base at Manta, the rightist Colombian authorities granted the US five army bases on its territory, to assist struggle peasants, unionists, left-leaning organizations, political parties and progressive governments.
Obama continued the “conflict on medicine” in Mexico, which causes the killings of two dozen individuals day by day—round 8000 a yr—and an increase in drug and weapons trafficking.
In Paraguay, Obama supported a right-wing parliamentary coup towards the progressive president and bishop, Fernando Lugo.
The one vibrant spot was Obama’s easing of the blockade towards Cuba, and the release of the last three of five Cubans imprisoned for infiltrating Cuban exile terrorists teams in the US, in an effort to forestall their terrorist actions towards Cuban individuals—additionally something the CIA was behind.
If opening up considerably to Cuba may be judged as constructive (allowing for that many major US capitalists such as the Rockefellers had been calling for an finish of the blockade for many years), the only other one constructive action he took (which I can recall anyway) was to launch Chelsea Manning from jail. However, it have to be remembered that it was the Obama administration that put her in jail, and tortured her, in the first place.
Obama’s presidency in some ways exhibits how liberal-progressive politicians might be extra dangerous than their conservative counterparts, who are typically extra truthful of their aspirations to dominate the world and earn income in whatever ways, thus making them easier to mobilize towards.
Journalist Glen Ford aptly described Obama and his spouse Michelle as a ‘two cynical legal professionals on rent to the wealthiest and the ghastliest’ who are ‘no nicer or nastier than the Romneys and the Ryans [opponents in 2012 election]although the person of the home bombs babies and keeps a kill record.’ He additionally had a Massive Brother complicated. Each day during Obama’s presidency, the NSA intercepted and saved more than 1.7 billion emails, telephone calls and other types of communications.
Glen Ford is Black Agenda Report’s chief editor. He wrote a superb foreword to this ebook. Ford opens his foreword thusly, and so I close my long evaluate.
“Barack Obama might go down in presidential historical past as the simplest—and deceptive—imperialist of them all.”