Kitchen Designs News

Subway Tile Kitchen Backsplash (Ultimate Guide)

Subway Tile Kitchen Backsplash (Ultimate Guide)

Welcome to our ultimate information to subway tile kitchen backsplash design ideas together with fashionable types, patterns and types.
Stylish kitchen with white porcelain subway tile, quartz countertops, wood island and white cabinets

Stylish kitchen with white porcelain subway tile, quartz countertops, wood island and white cabinetsA backsplash could seem small and prefer it has only a objective of protecting the wall, however truly it may be, and in current occasions has turn into a serious focus in many kitchen designs. Listed here are some ideas, tips, How Tos and inspirations on find out how to deliver your kitchen backsplash from simply helpful to both being practical and delightful.

What is Subway Tile?

Single wall kitchen with white subway tile backsplash and white cabinets

Single wall kitchen with white subway tile backsplash and white cabinetsThe time period ‘subway tile’ gets its identify from New York’s requirements in subways starting in the early 20th century. These have been (And nonetheless are) well known for a glossy finished tile with thin grout strains used on the walls.

The long-lasting look of a subway tile is a three inch by 6 inch white glossy glazed rectangle with the aforementioned skinny grout strains. Tiles weren’t one thing sometimes placed on walls, however in extraordinarily high visitors areas reminiscent of a New York subway station, tiles helped with the wear and tear and tear.

The public caught on to the design concept and now ‘subway tiles’ are used in a lot of business and residential purposes. Since these tiles are placed on a wall as an alternative of flooring they’re able to have a glossier glaze because it won’t be a slipping hazard.

Subway Tile Colors

Kitchen with glazed brown subway tile backsplash with herringbone pattern, wood plank island and waterfall countertop

Kitchen with glazed brown subway tile backsplash with herringbone pattern, wood plank island and waterfall countertopUsually, if protecting true to the original subway tile design, they tiles shall be a glossy white, however that isn’t a requirement. Tiles might be any colour conceivable based mostly on the materials chosen and aesthetic making an attempt to be created. From natural stone seems to be, shiny neutrals, to vibrant accents the world it at your command here. Pairing with grout colors is straightforward too with shade matching. And what’s to say you only want one or two colors, there are alternatives for mosaics and a whole lot of patterns used with totally different coloured tiles.

Subway tile Patterns

While there’s the normal approach that subway tiles have been laid, it has advanced into so many distinctive designs. Listed here are the preferred backsplash tile patterns to deliver excitement and inspiration to any fashion kitchen.

Straight Set Subway Tiles

Kitchen with gray cabinets and straight set subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with gray cabinets and straight set subway tile backsplashStraight set set up is also referred to as straight lay and it may be executed quite a lot of methods. This technique can also be referred to as stack bond because of the one on prime of the other nature of the sample. The general concept of straight set subway tiles is that it is square with the wall and is positioned in parallel rows off of that.

The straight set tile pattern is likely one of the easiest and easiest methods to lay tile, however to maintain it fascinating there are lots of variations. It’s most commonly horizontal and as in all straight laid patterns all the joints will line up.

Vertical Straight Set Subway Tiles

As a variation of the above mentioned straight set subway tiles that are sometimes a horizontal lay, there’s additionally an choice to put the tiles vertical. This is utilized in smaller spaces or rooms with decrease ceiling to create the illusion the area is larger. This sample additionally maintain s the characteristics of the straight lay tiles by being square with the wall, and then being placed in parallel row, the grout strains all line up.

Vertical offset subway tile

Vertical offset subway tileOne other variation of this fashion known as the vertical offset sample. We cowl the offset type in additional detail instantly under.

Offset Subway Tiles

Kitchen with white cabinets offset pattern gray subway tile marble countertops and gray island

Kitchen with white cabinets offset pattern gray subway tile marble countertops and gray islandThe offset pattern is pretty just like the earlier set up strategies but there’s one key difference. This difference is the place the fashion will get its nicknames of ‘brick sample’ and ‘operating bond’.

For an offset pattern the tile is offset one half the width of a tile within the rows above and under it. This was initially utilized by masons to create stronger buildings, but in non development makes use of it adds and thrilling sample. There may also be shade or measurement variations within the sample to create even more visual curiosity.

Kitchen with gray cabinets white subway tile with offset pattern and quartz countertops

Kitchen with gray cabinets white subway tile with offset pattern and quartz countertopsThere are variations to this pattern as nicely – changing up the offset distance. Third stagger offsets every of the tiles one third as an alternative of one half. Random stagger is an alternative choice that will probably be just like wood flooring patterns – where the planks (on this case tiles) usually are not all the same measurement and shall be randomly positioned. This provides a really distinctive search for subway tiles, and isn’t quite common.

Diagonal Offset Subway Tile

Kitchen with diagonal offset subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with diagonal offset subway tile backsplashOne other variation of the earlier offset tiles – however capable of have many variations of its own – is the diagonal offset subway tile installation. As an alternative of being sq. to the wall, this set up technique could have a 45 degree angle from the floor line (or wall line relying on software). This technique can have any of the mentioned staggering – random, common offset, third stagger, and so forth.

Herringbone Subway Tile

Kitchen with gray porcelain tile backsplash in herringbone pattern with white cabinets marble countertops and gray island

Kitchen with gray porcelain tile backsplash in herringbone pattern with white cabinets marble countertops and gray islandThe Herringbone sample uses rectangular tiles (so subway tiles are a perfect choice) or parallelograms in case you are feeling notably distinctive. The dimensions of the rectangles will often be 2:1 or 3:1 ratios, making the 3 inch by 6 inch subway tiles work very nicely with this pattern whereas nonetheless protecting its iconic type.

Kitchen with diagonal herringbone pattern subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with diagonal herringbone pattern subway tile backsplashThe sample represents the bones of fish – particularly the herring; therefore the identify. This sample is greatest placed in taller or bigger areas as a result of its horizontal and vertical qualities to create visual motion and being the gaze upward.

Subway Tile Sizes

Kitchen with brown ceramic subway tile backsplash white raised panel cabinets and distressed wood island

Kitchen with brown ceramic subway tile backsplash white raised panel cabinets and distressed wood islandSubway tiles are available a variety of totally different sizes for numerous totally different makes use of. The ratio of rectangular subway tiles are often 1:2, but it isn’t a requirement. Holding the 1:2 measurement ratio is likely one of the issues that makes the subway tiles so versatile and straightforward to rearrange. Some patterns require sure ratios to allow them to be positioned the correct means. A few of the commonest subway tile dimensions are as follows:

2×four
2×8
three×6*
three×12
4×eight
four×12
6×12

The 3 inch by 6 inch tiles are the usual – as these have been used in the 50s subway stations and introduced on the type. Sure types could have totally different sizes (corresponding to sq. or mini subway tiles) but these are the most typical. Sometimes larger tiles will make a room appear bigger as they’ve less grout strains and portray a extra open look.

Subway Tile Shapes

Kitchen with diagonal subway tile backsplash and gray cabinets

Kitchen with diagonal subway tile backsplash and gray cabinetsOnce more, there’s the standard rectangular subway tiles that began the revolution and that made subway tiles what they’re, however now there are variations in all places to suit all types of types and wishes. Some in style subway tile shapes  are as follows.

Flat Subway Tile

Kitchen with white subway tile backsplash white cabinets and white quartz countertops

Kitchen with white subway tile backsplash white cabinets and white quartz countertopsIf we take any context clues from the identify one would guess these tiles is perhaps flat – nicely that guess can be right. The basic look of subway tiles has flat edges. This makes your complete tile the identical peak and shape. The essential shape permits for the main target to be on the colour or sample of the tiles.

Beveled Subway Tile

Kitchen with beveled subway tile backsplash white cabinets and granite countertops

Kitchen with beveled subway tile backsplash white cabinets and granite countertopsBeveled subway tiles add a bit extra interest and texture to the wall tiles. The phrase bevel means to scale back to a sloping edge. That’s precisely what the beveled edge does – provides a slope to the sting so as to add a bit of bit of distinction and depth.

Bullnose Subway Tile

Bullnose subway tile

Bullnose subway tileA bullnose tile is used as a trim piece. That is because of its rounded edge (or edges). The intent is to put it around the fringe of a tiles area to avoid any sharp or unfinished edges. These tiles can be found in pretty much all the identical types and colours as the rest of the tiles as it is going to be a finish piece. These are particularly utilized in backsplashes, accent partitions, and base trim for softer edges.

Mini Subway Tile

Kitchen with mini subway tile white cabinets and shiplap walls

Kitchen with mini subway tile white cabinets and shiplap wallsMini subway tiles have a lot of the similar qualities as common subway tiles besides the are available a lot smaller sizes. These tiles are about 1” – 2” and may are available rectangles or squares. Because the tiles are so small they typically are available sheets, making installation a breeze! These are most commonly utilized in backsplashes or different small decorative areas.

Giant Subway Tile

Kitchen with blue large subway tile backsplash white cabinets and gray island

Kitchen with blue large subway tile backsplash white cabinets and gray islandWith every type of product there shall be an outsized version of it. That is the place giant subway tiles are available. They are identical to your commonplace subway tiles however double, triple, even quadruple the dimensions. These come in useful when making an attempt to keep away from cramping a room up by including too many patterns or grout strains.

Square Subway Tile

Kitchen with square subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with square subway tile backsplash Square subway tiles are extraordinarily just like that of normal subway tiles, except (As the identify suggests) they will be square as an alternative of rectangular. These may be positioned in the identical patterns and could be chosen in pretty much the same colours (relying on inventory). Mixing some sq. and a few rectangular tiles can add for a singular look.

Wavy Subway Tile

Kitchen with wavy tile backsplash and white cabinets with quartz countertops

Kitchen with wavy tile backsplash and white cabinets with quartz countertopsThe wavy subway tile sounds prefer it could possibly be a posh fashion, however it’s more the surface degree finish that is wavy than the sides of the tile itself. This sort of tile adds distinctive texture to the tiles that makes an area distinctive.

Subway Tile Value

Kitchen with herringbone pattern tile backsplash, cream cabinets and aqua blue island

Kitchen with herringbone pattern tile backsplash, cream cabinets and aqua blue islandThe cost of subway tiles, or subway tile tasks usually will rely upon quite a lot of totally different circumstances. Subway tiles themselves can value anyplace from 15 cents to 15 dollars per sq. foot. The prices improve though whenever you get into completed prices which are between $6 and $13. This varies inside states and by company you purchase product and providers from.

Subway tiles backsplashes range from $7 per square foot to $13 per square foot. This worth is most heavily influenced by the kinds of tiles selected.

Other gadgets it is advisable complete a undertaking comparable to this is grout and sealant for the tiles. This is often a mean worth of $1.50 per sq. foot. There are other instruments you need (if this can be a do it yourself undertaking) if you don’t already have them akin to: a grout float, degree, tile cutter, and so forth. That may be a worth addition to the venture.

The labor costs (if this is not a do it yourself venture) might be anyplace from $40 to $150 per hour based mostly on the complexity of the tiling. It’s because tiling is a labor intensive challenge and requires a cautious eye.

As mentioned the tiles themselves have totally different costs based mostly on measurement and sort. A number of examples are under. Costs based mostly on measurement of tile (Estimated costs):

2×4: $7 per sq. foot
2×8: $7.50 per sq. foot
three×6* : $5 per sq. foot
3×12 : $18 per square foot
four×8 : $6.50 per sq. foot
four×12 : $7 per sq. foot
Prices based mostly on sort of tile(estimated prices):
Ceramic: $4 to $8 per square foot
Glass: $29 to $38 per sq. foot
Mosaic Glass: $31 to $38 per square foot
Copper: $30 to $49 per sq. foot
Steel: $33 to $41 per sq. foot
Granite: $35 to $59 per square foot
Marble: $39 to $46 per square foot
Travertine: $20 to $30 per sq. foot

Subway Tile Designs

The primary two forms of tiles are glass and ceramic.

Glass Subway Tile

Kitchen with brown glass subway tile backsplash and white cabinets with marble countertops

Kitchen with brown glass subway tile backsplash and white cabinets with marble countertopsGlass tiles are a bit extra environmentally pleasant than the opposite out there options, which leads then to be a bit costlier. When it comes to seems glass tiles are quite transparent and mirror a great deal of mild, making areas appear bigger. Glass is much less porous than ceramic which may also help resist mould and mildew, but when it isn’t grouted rigorously and properly the glass can look dirty or smudge.

Ceramic Subway Tile

Kitchen with white ceramic subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with white ceramic subway tile backsplashSee this ceramic subway tile backsplash at Amazon

Ceramic subway tiles is the original materials that subway tiles have been produced from. Ceramic can deal with a bit extra wear and tear than the glass as it has great stain resistance.

Porcelain Subway Tile

Kitchen with porcelain subway tile backsplash quartz countertops and white cabinets

Kitchen with porcelain subway tile backsplash quartz countertops and white cabinetsPorcelain subway tiles will comply with go well with with ceramic tiles in most features, however they are a bit denser and fewer porous than ceramic. This makes porcelain a bit bit costlier and better for heavy obligation needs. Read more about porcelain vs ceramic tile here.

Carrara Marble Subway Tile

Kitchen with carrara marble subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with carrara marble subway tile backsplashCarrara marble is a white marble stone that’s extremely distinctive. No two pieces of this marble are the identical which makes the materials elegant as well as useful. With worth comes expense, and unfortunately Carrara marble is pretty costly. As well as Carrara marble is a comparatively delicate material and requires special upkeep to keep the stone in good condition.

Mirrored Subway Tiles

Kitchen with mirrored subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with mirrored subway tile backsplashMirrored subway tiles keep true to the identify of mirror. This kind of subway tile is a particularly reflective surface that may act as a mirror. Mirrored subway tiles can take a smaller space and make it really feel double in measurement with the reflective properties it has.

Stainless Steel Subway Tile

Kitchen with stainless steel subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with stainless steel subway tile backsplashChrome steel subway tiles are tiles that might be utilized in extra heavy obligation or business kitchen areas or in areas you wish to give that phantasm. The tiles shall be product of chrome steel and provides an industrial vibe.

Travertine Subway Tile

Kitchen with travertine subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with travertine subway tile backsplashTravertine is one other robust materials typically present in Mediterranean inside designs and used as tiles. Travertine is a pure stone so unfortunately is weak to acidic substances and may easily scratch. One of these tile has a very impartial colour palette and may have one in every of many finishes: polished, honed, brushed or tumbled.

Mosaic Subway Tile

Kitchen with mosaic subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with mosaic subway tile backsplashMosaic subway tiles are available as smaller items in sometimes a number of colors with a sample. These are often on a sheet for easier set up. Mosaic subway tiles could be in any of the supplies mentioned above – glass, ceramic, porcelain, and so on. This feature presents a focal piece to backsplashes or different tiles areas.

Textured Subway Tile

Kitchen with textured subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with textured subway tile backsplashTextured subway tiles also can are available all kinds of mentioned materials, these simply have a bit of more floor texture. In some supplies the end layer will purposely warp, or the tiles will probably be textured. This give a visible and physical texture that may add interest to any tiled area.

Peel and Stick Subway Tile

Kitchen with peel and stick subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with peel and stick subway tile backsplashSee this peel and stick subway tile backsplash at Amazon

Peel and stick subway tiles is just not the identical as the rest of the talked about materials, nevertheless it positive does appear to be it. Peel and stick tiles are product of plastic or vinyl and are extraordinarily lightweight to allow them to be stuck to the wall like a sticker. There are some varieties of peel and stick ceramic and glass tiles, but they nonetheless require a grouting after they’re utilized to the surface.

Subway Tile with Accent

Kitchen with subway tile backsplash and accent tile with wood veneer cabinets

Kitchen with subway tile backsplash and accent tile with wood veneer cabinetsSubway tiles may be laid in quite a lot of pattern, and never all of the tiles must be the same colour, accents will help spice up a bland look. Whether the accent is a colour or just a black tile combined in with the white tiles it could possibly still add a lot attention and pop to the tiled area.

The way to Set up Subway Tile Backsplash

Putting in subway tile can be carried out in a bunch of various steps and there’s a lot of ready for issues to dry. Under are a number of ideas and tips on the steps to install subway tile backsplash.

How one can Reduce Subway Tile

Kitchen with large marble subway tile backsplash

Kitchen with large marble subway tile backsplashSooner or later on this challenge slicing the tiles is important, it’s best to be prepared for that. The recommended device for slicing subway tiles is a tabletop moist saw, this is just like a wooden table saw but the blade is carbon or diamond to be able to reduce issues like subway tiles. The ‘wet’noticed means that it’ll launch a continuing stream of water to scale back the mud and heat as a lot as attainable – something that isn’t an choice when slicing wooden. With that device comply with the directions for a quick straightforward reduce to all the tiles needed for the undertaking.

What measurement trowel should I exploit for subway tile? First off, the reply to it will rely upon the world that will probably be tiled. Using a v notched trowel is likely one of the greatest varieties to make grooves in the adhesive that may assist the tiles keep on the wall even better. For small tasks comparable to backsplashes require a smaller trowel than one may have in a shower of full wall setting.

Learn how to Lay Subway Tile

Modern kitchen with gray subway tile backsplash white cabinets

Modern kitchen with gray subway tile backsplash white cabinetsAfter slicing all the items to the right sizes there are a couple of more steps to take. Start with getting ready the wall that the subway tiles are being put in on. This consists of overlaying the counters, cabinets, flooring, retailers, mild switches, and so forth, something that’s in the same space.

If in an area that must be heavily water-proof, including a layer of cement board is advocate. If not, then the tiles may be utilized proper to the prevailing drywall after a bit sanding. After sanding it is strongly recommended to plan out the lay of the tile pattern – incorporating one thing smaller (mosaic tiles) can are available sheets which make this step quite simple.

If there are sections that need bullnose tiles ensure you have these where they must be. The subsequent step consists of spreading the adherence on the partitions, often doing small portions of a time and then applying the tiles to avoid the substance chosen from drying.

There must be a bit of bit of wiggle room at first dries which you can make certain all of the tiles are correctly spaced and straight. There are spacers which you could get that may guarantee and even area between all the tiles. These can are available hand and might be removed as soon as the adhesive is dry.

Find out how to Set up Subway Tile Backsplash Corners

In some instances the tile will warp all the best way around a nook, which adds a bit bit of problem to the undertaking. It’s best to start out in the center and work your means out. Beginning at the corner that you must line the tiles up how you need them. As an alternative of utilizing grout at the nook joint you need to use caulk. It’s because over time the partitions will transfer over time and grout will crack in contrast to caulk that may transfer a bit with the partitions.

Subway Tile Spacing

Kitchen with light blue subway tile backsplash and white grout

Kitchen with light blue subway tile backsplash and white groutAs talked about previously spacers are available for tasks similar to subway tiling. These pieces are small shaper (All the identical measurement) that fit between the tiles to be sure that each tile is identical distance aside, giving a good look to the general design of the tiled area.

There are some tiles that take away the need for separate spacers, these have inbuilt spacers. Self spacing subway tiles have grooves on the edges of the tiles that may make for an automated 1/16” area for the grout strains. This is useful because it eliminates the necessity for fumbling with small spacers.

Find out how to End a Subway Tile Edge

One of the crucial helpful items that is wanted when finishing the edge of a subway tile would be the bullnose piece. This is used when the section being tiled doesn’t cowl all the wall. In instances of backsplashes that only go between the counter and cabinets or on toilet walls that only cover a sure space.

The bullnose tile piece will give a water tight seal and can keep away from and sharp edges. There’s nothing totally different that you’ll want to do in addition to add this piece in the long run to finish the ends. There are different types too, in addition to the bullnose. These finish pieces shall be totally different formed tiles that may take away the tough edges, bullnose is simply the most typical design.

Find out how to Grout Subway Tile

Contemporary kitchen with white subway tile white grout dark wood island with wood breakfast bar

Contemporary kitchen with white subway tile white grout dark wood island with wood breakfast barAfter all of the tiles are laid and spaced where you want them grouting them is the subsequent and remaining step. Whereas grout is a relatively straightforward step it can be simply tousled as properly. Grout dries shortly so it is best to work in smaller 5 to 10 sq. ft sections to keep away from grout strains the place they don’t seem to be imagined to be.

Grout is available in many differing kinds: powdered, premixes, sanded, non sanded, and so forth. Verify what the tiles recommend is greatest to pair with the product to select the proper. If it doesn’t specify a superb identifier is how massive the grout line can be. Sanded grout is usually used for grout strains over 1/8 inches thick, whereas non sanded is really helpful for grout strains underneath 1/eight inches assume.

In relation to powdered over premixed, powdered must be combined collectively and is often used for greater jobs whereas premixed is quick and ready to go for smaller uses.

To grout subway tile there are a couple of supplies that you simply need. Some of these are ones that you simply used within the steps of laying the tiles themselves which suggests you need to use them right here. Needle nostril pliers, tile sealer, grout (see above for what sort is beneficial) putty knife, rubber grout flute, one gallon bucket, grout sponge, and cleaning materials.

Beginning off the grouting process, make sure that all tiles spacers have been removed if applicable, and makes positive the surfaces is complete and prepared. If the tile is porous it needs to be sealed before the grouting process begins.

After that’s full start by making use of the grout to about 5 sq. ft of the tiled space with the rubber grout float. The intention is to get it to fill the joints between the tiles, but getting some on the tiles is alright. After filling the part joints with grout get the grout sponge and clear the tiles that have some excess grout on them.

If it is very important you, form the grout strains – you’ll be able to run your finger over them or you should use a particular device. This simply removes extra grout and smooths the joints out. After these steps have been performed on everything of the tiled space let it sit for about an hour, then full the final clear. This can embrace using a material to take away any excess material from the tiles. Following that is the buffing of the tiles using some type of cheesecloth or magic eraser relying on the shiny you want.

What shade grout ought to I decide?

Contemporary kitchen with white subway tile and white grout with quartz countertops dark cabinets

Contemporary kitchen with white subway tile and white grout with quartz countertops dark cabinetsGrout can are available all kinds of colors, and typically might be colour matched to certain tiles is that is the design intent. Typically individuals will decide a grout colour that is the similar colour family as the tiles but just some shades darker or lighter than the chosen tiles. Typically although, not all of the tiles are the identical shade which may throw off how which shade you might choose.

With multicolored tiles it can be good to select probably the most outstanding colour tile and coordinate with that tile particularly, sometimes the other tiles will coordinate as properly. Typically with too many colours a neutral is required. A number of neutral colours and their greatest makes use of are as follows.

Kitchen with subway tile backsplash with gray grout and antique cabinets

Kitchen with subway tile backsplash with gray grout and antique cabinetsSubway tile with white grout shouldn’t be typically chosen because of the ease of it altering from pure white to an off-white. Just watch out for that selection when making it. For those who can maintain it clear it is going to be a lovely addition to and colour tiles, and provides a clear minimize look.

Even when the pure white grout fades to an off white it could nonetheless be a phenomenal addition. Subway tile with gray or off white grout could make a dramatic look. With the totally different hues of grey and off whites it may be paired with both heat tone tiles and cool tone tiles. These neutrals will grow to be timeless as they are going to be best to pair with any modifications in shade accents with type modifications or even resident modifications.

Cottage kitchen with shaker cabinets, white subway tile and black grout and butcher block island

Cottage kitchen with shaker cabinets, white subway tile and black grout and butcher block islandAn alternative choice may be subway tile with black grout. Going with a darker grout like black will give a excessive distinction search for any colour tile you choose. Black grout is extraordinarily good at hiding filth which will get stuck in the grout which is a plus since grout isn’t probably the most cleaned a part of the tiled space. With its high contrast appearance black is sweet to be used in geometric designs and patterns.

One of the best grout shade for white subway tile will depend upon the aesthetic that s desired. For a light-weight balanced kitchen white grout will coordinate completely with the white tiles. If in search of a more dramatic eye catching backsplash or wall adding a shiny colored or black grout will highlight the white tiles.

!perform(f,b,e,v,n,t,s)if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=perform()n.callMethod?
n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments);if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n;
n.push=n;n.loaded=!zero;n.model=’2.zero’;n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!zero;
t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)(window,
document,’script’,’https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js’);
fbq(‘init’, ‘920242531385038’); // Insert your pixel ID here.
fbq(‘monitor’, ‘PageView’);